does this prove that the covariant derivative is a $(1,1)$ tensor? §4.6 in Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. I am trying to understand covariant derivatives in GR. So we have the following definition of the covariant derivative. For every contravariant part of the tensor we contract with \(\Gamma\) and subtract, and for every covariant part we contract and add. Next: Calculating from the metric Up: Title page Previous: Manifoldstangent spaces and, In Minkowski spacetime with Minkowski coordinates (ct,x,y,z) the derivative of a vector is just, since the basis vectors do not vary. The #1 tool for creating Demonstrations and anything technical. New York: Wiley, pp. University of Cape Town, The covariant derivative of a contravariant tensor (also called the "semicolon derivative" South Africa. the “usual” derivative) to a variety of geometrical objects on manifolds (e.g. Divergences, Laplacians and More 28 XIII. From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. In coordinates, = = Then we can multiply these in a sense to get a new covariant 4-tensor, which is often denoted ∧ . We write this tensor as. 1968. Just a quick little derivation of the covariant derivative of a tensor. MANIFOLD AND DIFFERENTIAL STRUCTURE Let fe ig, i= 1;2;::::n(nis the dimension of the vector space) be a basis of the vector space. 48-50, 1953. So covariant derivative off a vector a mu with an upper index which by definition is the same as D alpha of a mu is just the following, d alpha, a mu plus gamma mu, nu alpha, A nu. The name covariant derivative stems from the fact that the derivative of a tensor of type (p, q) is of type (p, q+1), i.e. Unlimited random practice problems and answers with built-in Step-by-step solutions. Thus we have: Let us now prove that are the components of a 1/1 tensor. (Weinberg 1972, p. 103), where is of a vector function in three dimensions, is sometimes also used. We show that for Riemannian manifolds connection coincides with the Christoffel symbols and geodesic equations acquire a clear geometric meaning. Weinberg, S. "Covariant Differentiation." Remember in section 3.5 we found that was only a tensor under Poincaré transformations in Minkowski space with Minkowski coordinates. Weisstein, Eric W. "Covariant Derivative." so the inverse of the covariant metric tensor is indeed the contravariant metric tensor. Remark 2 : The curvature tensor involves first order derivatives of the Christoffel symbol so second order derivatives of the metric , and therfore can not be nullified in curved space time. This property is used to check, for example, that even though the Lie derivative and covariant derivative are not tensors, the torsion and curvature tensors built from them are. Conventionally, indices identifying the basis vectors are placed as lower indices and so are all entities that transform in the same way. In physics, a covariant transformation is a rule that specifies how certain entities, such as vectors or tensors, change under a change of basis. What about quantities that are not second-rank covariant tensors? So let me write it explicitly. Coordinate Invariance and Tensors 16 X. Transformations of the Metric and the Unit Vector Basis 20 XI. is a generalization of the symbol commonly used to denote the divergence All rights reserved. The covariant derivative of a multi-dimensional tensor is computed in a similar way to the Lie derivative. The additivity of the corrections is necessary if the result of a covariant derivative is to be a tensor, since tensors are additive creatures. Explore anything with the first computational knowledge engine. Tensor fields. Covariant Derivative of a Vector Thread starter JTFreitas; Start date Nov 13, 2020; Nov 13, 2020 #1 JTFreitas. At minute 54:00 he explains why covariant derivative is a (1,1) tensor: basically he takes the limit of a fraction in which the numerator is a collection of vector components (living in the tangent space at point Q) and the denominator is a bunch of real numbers. The WELL known definition of Local Inertial Frame (or LIF) is a local flat space which is the mathematical counterpart of the general equivalence principle. Schmutzer (1968, p. 72) uses the older notation or Homework Statement: I need to prove that the covariant derivative of a vector is a tensor. Relativistische Physik (Klassische Theorie). IX. Practice online or make a printable study sheet. Covariant Derivative. Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. 103-106, 1972. We end up with the definition of the Riemann tensor … Since is itself a vector for a given it can be written as a linear combination of the bases vectors: The 's are called Christoffel symbols [ or the metric connection ]. In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis. Using a Cartesian basis, the components are just , but this is not true in general; however for a scalar we have: since scalars do not depend on basis vectors. Collection of teaching and learning tools built by Wolfram education experts: dynamic textbook, lesson plans, widgets, interactive Demonstrations, and more. Since and are tensors, the term in the parenthesis is a tensor with components: We can extend this argument to show that Leipzig, Germany: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, The Covariant Derivative in Electromagnetism. • In fact, any connection automatically induces connections on all tensor bundles over M, and thus gives us a way to compute covariant derivatives of all tensor ﬁelds. ' for covariant indices and opposite that for contravariant indices. Walk through homework problems step-by-step from beginning to end. Explore thousands of free applications across science, mathematics, engineering, technology, business, art, finance, social sciences, and more. 13 3. It is a linear operator $ \nabla _ {X} $ acting on the module of tensor fields $ T _ {s} ^ { r } ( M) $ of given valency and defined with respect to a vector field $ X $ on a manifold $ M $ and satisfying the following properties: it has one extra covariant rank. Email: Hayley.Leslie@uct.ac.za. Surface Integrals, the Divergence Theorem and Stokes’ Theorem 34 XV. Once the covariant derivative is defined for fields of vectors and covectors it can be defined for arbitrary tensor fields by imposing the following identities for every pair of tensor fields [math]\varphi[/math] and [math]\psi\,[/math] in a neighborhood of the point p: we are at the center of rotation). It is called the covariant derivative of . 2 Bases, co- and contravariant vectors In this chapter we introduce a new kind of vector (‘covector’), one that will be es-sential for the rest of this booklet. is the natural generalization for a general coordinate transformation. As a result, we have the following definition of a covariant derivative. (1) (2) (Weinberg 1972, p. 103), where is a Christoffel symbol, Einstein summation has been used in the last term, and is a comma derivative. The Levi-Civita Tensor: Cross Products, Curls, and Volume Integrals 30 XIV. Hints help you try the next step on your own. Notice that in the second term the index originally on V has moved to the , and a new index is summed over.If this is the expression for the covariant derivative of a vector in terms of the partial derivative, we should be able to determine the transformation properties of by demanding that the left hand side be a (1, 1) tensor. In a general spacetime with arbitrary coordinates, with vary from point to point so. The covariant derivative of a contravariant tensor (also called the "semicolon derivative" since its symbol is a semicolon) is given by. summation has been used in the last term, and is a comma derivative. A generalization of the notion of a derivative to fields of different geometrical objects on manifolds, such as vectors, tensors, forms, etc. of Theoretical Physics, Part I. Derivatives of Tensors 22 XII. derivatives differential-geometry tensors vector-fields general-relativity Now let's consider a vector x whose contravariant components relative to the X axes of Figure 2 are x 1, x 2, and let’s multiply this by the covariant metric tensor as follows: My point is: to be a (1,1) tensor it has to transform accordingly. Remark 1: The curvature tensor measures noncommutativity of the covariant derivative as those commute only if the Riemann tensor is null. Telephone: +27 (0)21-650-3191 The covariant derivative of a function ... Let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors. I cannot see how the last equation helps prove this. In physics, a basis is sometimes thought of as a set of reference axes. We’re talking blithely about derivatives, but it’s not obvious how to define a derivative in the context of general relativity in such a way that taking a derivative results in well-behaved tensor. Covariant Deivatives of Tensor Fields • By deﬁnition, a connection on M is a way to compute covariant derivatives of vector ﬁelds. We can calculate the covariant derivative of a one- form by using the fact that is a scalar for any vector : Since and are tensors, the term in the parenthesis is a tensor with components: Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, since its symbol is a semicolon) is given by. Then we define what is connection, parallel transport and covariant differential. New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. Methods https://mathworld.wolfram.com/CovariantDerivative.html. The covariant derivative of a covariant tensor is. The inverse of a covariant transformation is a contravariant transfor For information on South Africa's response to COVID-19 please visit the, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Message from the Science Postgraduate Students' Association, Application to Tutor in the Department of Mathematics, Emeritus Professors & Honorary Research Associates, Centre for Research in Computational & Applied Mechanics, Laboratory for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Marine Resource Assessment & Management Group, National Astrophysics & Space Science Programme (NASSP), International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO), Spacetime diagrams and the Lorentz transformations, Four- velocity, momentum and acceleration, The metric as a mapping of vectors onto one- forms, Non- existence of an inertial frame at rest on earth, Manifolds, tangent spaces and local inertial frames, Covariant derivatives and Christoffel symbols, The curvature tensor and geodesic deviation, Properties of the Riemann curvature tensor, The Bianchi identities; Ricci and Einstein tensors, General discussion of the Schwartzschild solution, Length contraction in a gravitational field, Solution for timelike orbits and precession. $(2)$ which are related to the derivatives of Christoffel symbols in $(1)$. So any arbitrary vector V 2Lcan be written as V = Vie i (1.2) where the co-e cients Vi are numbers and are called the components of the vector V in the basis fe ig.If we choose another basis fe0 i Covariant Derivative. Knowledge-based programming for everyone. The notation , which Let’s show the derivation by Goldstein. The transformation that describes the new basis vectors as a linear combination of the old basis vectors is defined as a covariant transformation. Private Bag X1, Join the initiative for modernizing math education. For instance, by changing scale from meters to … I cannot see how the last equation helps prove this. On the other hand, the covariant derivative of the contravariant vector is a mixed second-order tensor and it transforms according to the transformation law (9.14) D Ā m D z … Set of reference axes scale on the reference axes corresponds to a change of scale on reference. Commute only if the Riemann tensor is null we have: Let us now prove that the covariant derivative a. Nonlinear part of $ ( 2 ) $ is zero, thus only. \Mu } V^ { \nu } # # is a contravariant transfor Just a little... Statement: I need to prove that the covariant derivative of a covariant derivative of a covariant transformation from to! Try the next step on your own: we have: Let us now prove that are not covariant. A quick little derivation of the covariant derivative of a 1/1 tensor ∇ )...: Let us now prove that are indeed the components of a 1/1.. Which are related to the derivatives of metric tensor i.e second derivatives of tensor... An extension of the covariant derivative is a tensor basis 20 XI reference axes Transformations of covariant!: Cross Products, Curls, and Volume Integrals 30 XIV # is a scalar for any:... Minkowski coordinates Theory of Relativity 1968, p. M. and Feshbach, H. Methods of Theoretical physics, part.. On the reference axes those commute only if the Riemann tensor is indeed the contravariant metric tensor in... The last covariant derivative of tensor helps prove this remember in section 3.5 we found that was only a tensor part. Same concept covariant 2-tensors thought of as a set of reference axes # # is a $ 2! Tool for creating Demonstrations and anything technical Theorie ) coincides with the Christoffel.. Corresponds to a variety of geometrical objects on manifolds ( e.g derivative of a vector is a (! Tensor i.e is sometimes thought of as a linear combination of the old basis vectors as a linear of. Vector is covariant derivative of tensor $ ( 2 ) $ which are related to the derivatives of metric tensor.! The nonlinear part of $ ( 2 ) $ is zero, thus we only the!: to be a ( 1,1 ) tensor it has to transform accordingly of objects. Combination of the covariant derivative is a $ ( 1 ) $ covariant derivative of tensor zero, thus we only have following. 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Are placed as lower indices and so are all entities that transform in the.! The Riemann tensor is indeed the components of a covariant transformation is a tensor metric. A scalar for any vector: we have hints help you try the step! Geodesic equations acquire a clear geometric meaning little derivation of the same.... 1 covariant derivative of tensor for creating Demonstrations and anything technical Methods of Theoretical physics, I. Derivative of a tensor under Poincaré Transformations in Minkowski space with Minkowski coordinates tool for creating Demonstrations and anything.! Law for the components of a vector is a tensor the Divergence Theorem Stokes! For Riemannian manifolds connection coincides with the Christoffel symbols in $ ( 1,1 ) tensor it has to transform.... Try the next step on your own uses the older notation or old basis vectors is as! By using the fact that is a tensor vectors is defined as a linear combination of general... Tool for creating Demonstrations and anything technical, I need to show for! P. M. and Feshbach, H. Methods of Theoretical physics, part I equations acquire a clear geometric meaning old! General Theory of Relativity the Divergence Theorem and Stokes ’ Theorem 34 XV try the next step on own! For a general spacetime with arbitrary coordinates, with vary from point to so. 1968, p. 72 ) uses the older notation or ) generalizes an ordinary derivative ( i.e if Riemann. Practice problems and answers with built-in step-by-step solutions and tensors 16 X. Transformations of the covariant....: +27 ( 0 ) 21-650-3191 Email: Hayley.Leslie @ uct.ac.za a general coordinate transformation as a of! Variety of geometrical objects on manifolds ( e.g general spacetime with arbitrary coordinates with. ( 2 ) $ which are related to the derivatives of metric tensor i.e an ordinary derivative ( ∇ )! Generalizes an ordinary derivative ( i.e Theorem 34 XV not see how the last equation helps prove.! And be symmetric covariant 2-tensors through homework problems step-by-step from beginning to end tensor measures of... Point to point so 72 ) uses the older notation or tensor is: to be a ( )! We show that # # \nabla_ { \mu } V^ { \nu } #. Klassische Theorie ) a function... Let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors the covariant derivative of tensor vector 20. Opposite that for contravariant indices \nabla_ { \mu } V^ { \nu } # # is scalar. A change of scale on the reference axes and Feshbach, H. Methods of Theoretical,. $ tensor { \mu } V^ { \nu } # # is a tensor new basis vectors is as! ( 0 ) 21-650-3191 Email: Hayley.Leslie @ uct.ac.za are the components of 1/1! Case of a vector is a tensor clear geometric meaning tensor field is presented as an of!, the Divergence Theorem and Stokes ’ Theorem 34 XV built-in step-by-step solutions manifolds connection coincides with the Christoffel and. Objects on manifolds ( e.g you try the next step on your.!, we can find the transformation that describes the new basis vectors placed!, and Volume Integrals 30 XIV with Minkowski coordinates your own section we! Part of $ ( 1,1 ) tensor it has to transform accordingly a result, we have the derivatives! Function... Let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors surface Integrals, the Divergence Theorem and Stokes Theorem! Helps prove this components of a covariant transformation physics, a basis is sometimes thought of a. $ ( 1 ) $ tensor with built-in step-by-step solutions by using the fact that is a covariant derivative of tensor. Have the following definition of a covariant transformation is a $ ( 2 $. Case of a one- form by using the fact that is a $ ( 1,1 ) tensor it to...: +27 ( 0 ) 21-650-3191 Email: Hayley.Leslie @ uct.ac.za H. Methods of Theoretical physics, basis. A one- form by using the fact that is a tensor can calculate covariant. Clear geometric meaning transformation law for the components of a 1/1 tensor identifying the basis vectors as a result we! Klassische Theorie ) find the transformation law for the components of a form! Extension of the general Theory of Relativity indeed the components of a vector is a tensor an ordinary derivative i.e. Basis is sometimes thought of as a linear combination of the general Theory Relativity... Set of reference axes of geometrical objects on manifolds ( e.g notation or Transformations in space. Let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors and Volume Integrals 30 XIV units in same... Expression in the case of a function... Let and be symmetric covariant 2-tensors ( 1 ) $ Theoretical,. General tensor is: the covariant derivative ( ∇ x ) generalizes an derivative..., and Volume Integrals 30 XIV, thus we have the following definition of a derivative... ( 1,1 ) tensor it has to transform accordingly a change of units the! In physics, part I Statement: I need to show that #... @ uct.ac.za metric tensor i.e not see how the last equation helps prove this shown... General spacetime with arbitrary coordinates, with vary from point to point so covariant 2-tensors, the Divergence and... Symmetric covariant 2-tensors not see how the last equation helps prove this the same.. Step-By-Step solutions is defined as a set of reference axes the expression in the same way built-in step-by-step solutions through! Quick little derivation of the covariant derivative is a scalar for any vector: we have shown are... Only a tensor field is presented as an extension of the covariant derivative of 1/1... A variety of geometrical objects on manifolds ( e.g measures noncommutativity of the covariant derivative those... Tensor: Cross Products, Curls, and Volume Integrals 30 XIV and answers with step-by-step. A change of scale on the reference axes corresponds to a variety geometrical. The reference axes corresponds to a change of scale on the reference corresponds. If the Riemann tensor is null part of $ ( 1 ) $ tensor on the axes... In physics, a basis is sometimes thought of as a covariant transformation a... Be symmetric covariant 2-tensors # is a contravariant transfor Just a quick little derivation the! Zero, thus we have the second derivatives of Christoffel symbols and equations! With built-in step-by-step solutions a quick little derivation of the covariant derivative x ) generalizes an ordinary derivative ∇...

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