70% of Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka live in the Northern and Eastern provinces. They are predominantly followers of Islam. It is on the east coast, 111 kilometres (69 mi) south of Trincomalee, and is situated on an island. [181] There was further violence in 1981 when an organised Sinhalese mob went on a rampage during the nights of 31 May to 2 June, burning down the Jaffna public library—at the time one of the largest libraries in Asia—containing more than 97,000 books and manuscripts. [86][87], The two groups of Tamils located in Sri Lanka are the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils. [206] C. W. Thamotharampillai, an Indian-based Tamil language revivalist, was born in the Jaffna peninsula. Activities by missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and Methodist and Anglican churches led to a revival among Hindu Tamils who created their own social groups, built their own schools and temples, and published their own literature to counter the missionary activities. [53][54] The Vanni region flourished. [217], Megalithic burial urns or jar found in Pomparippu, North Western, Sri Lanka dated to at least five to two centuries BCE. Since independence, the political relationship between Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamil community has been strained. In Sri Lanka, there is radiometric evidence from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occur in the 10th century BCE. Sri Lankan Tamils (Tamil: இலங்கை தமிழர், ilankai tamiḻar ?,Tamil: ஈழத் தமிழர், īḻat tamiḻar ? Temple schools and traditional gurukulam classes on verandahs (known as Thinnai Pallikoodam in Tamil) spread basic education in religion and in languages such as Tamil and Sanskrit to the upper classes. Vedda is an endangered language which is used by the indigenous Vedda people of Sri Lanka. [110] Northern Tamil society is generally categorised into two groups: those who are from the Jaffna peninsula in the north, and those who are residents of the Vanni to the immediate south. [139] Also, a large component of the settlers were from the Coromandel Coast and Malabar Coast which may have helped with the preservation of the dialect. [19][20]A United Nations panel found that as many as 40,000 Tamil civilians may have been killed in the final months of the civil war. [68] Rajadhiraja Chola's conquest of the island led to the fall of four kings there, one of whom, Madavarajah, the king of Jaffna, was a usurper from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty. [214][215] The International Organization for Migration and the Australian government has declared some Sri Lankans including Tamils as economic migrants. [55], In the 6th century CE, a special coastal route by boat was established from the Jaffna peninsula southwards to Saivite religious centres in Trincomalee (Koneswaram) and further south to Batticaloa (Thirukkovil), passed a few small Tamil trading settlements in Mullaitivu on the north coast. [3] [8], The dialect used in Jaffna is the oldest and most archaic of Tamil dialects in Sri Lanka and India. Although Batticaloa Tamil has some very specific features of vocabulary, it is classified with other Sri Lankan Tamil dialects as it is related to them by characteristic traits of its phonology. Negombo Tamil dialect or Negombo Fishermen’s Tamil is a Sri Lankan Tamil language dialect used by the fishers of Negombo, Sri Lanka. Under the terms of an agreement reached between the Sri Lankan and Indian governments in the 1960s, about forty percent of the Indian Tamils were granted Sri Lankan citizenship, and most of the remainder were repatriated to India. It is broadly categorized into four sub groups: Jaffna Tamil, Batticaloa Tamil, up country Indian origin Tamils and Negombo Tamil dialects. Snacks, savouries, sweets and porridge produced from the palmyra form a separate but unique category of foods; from the fan-shaped leaves to the root, the palmyra palm forms an intrinsic part of the life and cuisine of northern region. The critical period of the missionaries' impact was from the 1820s to the early 20th century. [22] The end of the civil war has not improved conditions in Sri Lanka, with press freedom not being restored and the judiciary coming under political control.[23][24][25]. Negombo is a principal coastal city in the Gampaha District and Puttalam is also the principal city within the neighbouring Puttalam District. Vira Alakeshwara, a descendant of Alagakkonara, later became king of the Sinhalese,[74] but he was overthrown by the Ming admiral Zheng He in 1409 CE. These drummers had historically played an important role as ritual players of drums at funerals and folk temples and as heralds and traditional weavers. Additionally, communities such as Coast Veddas and Anuradhapura Veddas who do not strictly identify as Veddas also use words from the Vedda language in part for communication during hunting and/or for religious chants, throughout the island. Negombo Tamils or Puttalam Tamils are the native Sri Lankan Tamils who live in the western Gampaha and Puttalam districts of Sri Lanka. Although most residents of these districts identify them as ethnic Sinhalese some are bilingual in both the languages. [83], In comparison to Indian Tamils, the Tamils of Sri Lanka had a higher admixture with the Sinhalese, though the Sinhalese themselves share a 69.86% (+/- 0.61) genetic admixture with the Indian Tamils. The Tamil dialect used by residents of the Trincomalee district has many similarities with the Jaffna Tamil dialect. [14]. According to Jonathan Spencer, a social anthropologist from the School of Social and Political Studies of the University of Edinburgh, the war is an outcome of how modern ethnic identities have been made and re-made since the colonial period, with the political struggle between minority Tamils and the Sinhalese-dominant government accompanied by rhetorical wars over archeological sites and place name etymologies, and the political use of the national past. According to the 2012 census there were 2,270,924 Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka, 11.2% of the population. There are about 65 million Tamil … [182][183], Since 1948, successive governments have adopted policies that had the net effect of assisting the Sinhalese community in such areas as education and public employment. [184], Human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State[189] and the European Union,[190] have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka, and both the government of Sri Lanka and the rebel LTTE have been accused of human rights violations. SLPC is associated with the Sri Lanka Kaffir people, an ethnic minority group. [151], Medieval period Tamil literature on the subjects of medicine, mathematics and history was produced in the courts of the Jaffna Kingdom. Before and during the early part of colonial rule by Europeans, Sri Lanka was under the rule of three separate kingdoms. It also maintains some words that are unique to present day . [11] There are a number of Prakrit loans words that are unique to the Jaffna Tamil. [172] But under section 29(2) of the constitution formulated by the commissioner, additional protection was provided to minority groups, such requiring a two-thirds majority for any amendments and a scheme of representation that provided more weight to the ethnic minorities. While the predominant languages of the island are Sinhala and Tamil, the interaction of the Portuguese and the Sri Lankans led to the evolution of a new language, Sri Lanka Portuguese Creole (SLPC), which flourished as a lingua franca on the island for over 350 years. [147], The primary impetus for educational opportunity came with the establishment of the American Ceylon Mission in Jaffna District, which started with the arrival in 1813 of missionaries sponsored by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 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